This dataset contains the automatic weather station (AWS) measurements from Bajitan Gobi station in the flux observation matrix from 13 May to 21 September, 2012. The site (100.30420° E, 38.91496° N) was located in a Gobi surface, which is near Zhangye city, Gansu Province. The elevation is 1562 m. The installation heights and orientations of different sensors and measured quantities were as follows: air temperature and humidity (HMP45AC; 5 m and 10 m, towards north), air pressure (PTB110; 2 m), rain gauge (TE525M; 10 m), wind speed (03001; 5 m and 10 m, towards north), wind direction (03001; 10 m, towards north), a four-component radiometer (CNR1; 6 m, towards south), two infrared temperature sensors (IRTC3; 6 m, vertically downward), soil temperature profile (AV-10T; 0, -0.02, -0.04, -0.1, -0.2, -0.4, -0.6, and -1.0 m), soil moisture profile (ECh2o-5; -0.02, -0.04, -0.1, -0.2, -0.4, -0.6, and -1.0 m), and soil heat flux (HFT3; 3 duplicates, 0.06 m).
The observations included the following: air temperature and humidity (Ta_5 m and Ta_10 m, RH_5 m and RH_10 m) (℃ and %, respectively), air pressure (press, hpa), precipitation (rain, mm), wind speed (Ws_5 m and Ws_10 m, m/s), wind direction (WD_10 m, °), four-component radiation (DR, incoming shortwave radiation; UR, outgoing shortwave radiation; DLR_Cor, incoming longwave radiation; ULR_Cor, outgoing longwave radiation; Rn, net radiation; W/m^2), infrared temperature (IRT_1 and IR_2, ℃), soil heat flux (Gs_1, Gs_2 and Gs_3, W/m^2), soil temperature profile (Ts_0 cm, Ts_2 cm, Ts_4 cm, Ts_10 cm, Ts_20 cm, Ts_40 cm, Ts_60 cm, and Ts_100 cm, ℃), and soil moisture profile (Ms_2 cm, Ms_4 cm, Ms_10 cm, Ms_20 cm, Ms_40 cm, Ms_60 cm, and Ms_100 cm, %).
The data processing and quality control steps were as follows. (1) The AWS data were averaged over intervals of 10 min; therefore, there were 144 records per day. The missing data were filled with -6999. (2) Data in duplicate records were rejected. (3) Unphysical data were rejected. (4) In this dataset, the time of 0:10 corresponds to the average data for the period between 0:00 and 0:10; the data were stored in *.xlsx format. (5) Finally, the naming convention was AWS+ site no. Moreover, suspicious data were marked in red.
For more information, please refer to Liu et al. (2016) (for multi-scale observation experiment or sites information), Xu et al. (2013) (for data processing) in the Citation section.
1. Liu, S.M., Xu, Z.W., Song, L.S., Zhao, Q.Y., Ge, Y., Xu, T.R., Ma, Y.F., Zhu, Z.L., Jia, Z.Z., Zhang, F. (2016). Upscaling evapotranspiration measurements from multi-site to the satellite pixel scale over heterogeneous land surfaces. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 230-231, 97-113. doi:10.1016/j.agrformet.2016.04.008.(View Details |Download )
2. Xu, Z.W., Liu, S.M., Li, X., Shi, S.J., Wang, J.M., Zhu, Z.L., Xu, T.R., Wang, W.Z., & Ma, M.G. (2013). Intercomparison of surface energy flux measurement systems used during the HiWATER-MUSOEXE. Journal of Geophysical Research, 118, 13140-13157.(View Details |Download )Cite as:
Liu, S., Li, X., Xu, Z. (2016). < b>HiWATER: The multi-scale observation experiment on evapotranspiration over heterogeneous land surfaces 2012 (MUSOEXE-12)-dataset of flux observation matrix（Zhangye gobi desert station)</b>2016. doi: 10.3972/hiwater.076.2013.db. (Download the reference： RIS | Bibtex )
Using this data, the data citation is required to be referenced and the related literatures are suggested to be cited.
1.Xu, Z.W., Ma, Y.F., Liu, S.M., Shi, S.J., & Wang, J.M. (2017). Assessment of the energy balance closure under advective conditions and its impact using remote sensing data. Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology, 56, 127-140. (View Details )
2.Li, X., Liu, S.M., Xiao, Q., Ma, M.G., Jin, R., Che, T., Wang, W.Z., Hu, X.L., Xu, Z.W., Wen, J.G., Wang, L.X. (2017). A multiscale dataset for understanding complex eco-hydrological processes in a heterogeneous oasis system. Scientific Data, 4, 170083. doi:10.1038/sdata.2017.83. (View Details |Download)
3.Song, L.S., Liu, S.M., Zhang, X., Zhou, J., Li, M.S. (2015). Estimating and Validating Soil Evaporation and Crop Transpiration During the HiWATER-MUSOEXE. IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters, 12(2), 334-338. doi:10.1109/LGRS.2014.2339360. (View Details )
4.Song, L.S., Liu, S.M., William Kustas P, Zhou, J., Ma, Y.F. (2015). Using the Surface Temperature-Albedo Space to Separate Regional Soil and Vegetation Temperatures from ASTER Data. Remote Sensing, 7(5), 5828-5848. doi:10.3390/rs70505828. (View Details )
5.Li, X., Cheng, G.D., Liu, S.M., Xiao, Q., Ma, M.G., Jin, R., Che, T., Liu, Q.H., Wang, W.Z., Qi, Y., Wen, J.G., Li, H.Y., Zhu, G.F., Guo, J.W., Ran, Y.H., Wang, S.G., Zhu, Z.L., Zhou, J., Hu, X.L., & Xu, Z.W. (2013). Heihe watershed allied telemetry experimental research (hiwater): scientific objectives and experimental design. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 94(8), 1145-1160. doi:10.1175/BAMS-D-12-00154.1. (View Details )
6.Zhou, J., Li, M.S., Liu, S.M., Jia, Z.Z., Ma, Y.F. (2015). Validation and performance evaluations of methods for estimating land surface temperatures from ASTER data in the middle reach of the Heihe River Basin, Northwest China. Remote Sensing, 7, 7126-7156. (View Details )
7.Ge, Y., Liang, Y.Z., Wang, J.H., Zhao, Q.Y., Liu, S.M. (2015). Upscaling sensible heat fluxes with area-to-area regression kriging. IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters, 12(3), 656-660. doi:10.1109/LGRS.2014.2355871. (View Details )
8.Li, X., Liu, S.M., Ma, M.G., Xiao, Q., Liu, Q.H., & Jin, R., et al. (2012). (2012). Hiwater:an integrated remote sensing experiment on hydrological and ecological processes in the heihe river basin. Advances in Earth Science, 27(5), 481-498. (View Details |Download)
9.Hu, M.G., Wang, J.H., Ge, Y., Liu, M.X., Liu, S.M., Xu, Z.W., Xu, T.R. (2015). Scaling Flux Tower Observations of Sensible Heat Flux Using Weighted Area-to-Area Regression Kriging. Atmosphere, 6(8), 1032-1044. (View Details )
10.Xu, T.R., Bateni, S.M., Liang, S.L. (2015). Estimating turbulent heat fluxes with a weak-constraint data assimilation scheme: A case study (HiWATER-MUSOEXE). IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters, 12(1), 68-72. doi:10.1109/LGRS.2014.2326180. (View Details )
11.Wang, J.M., Zhuang, J.X., Wang, W.Z., Liu, S.M., Xu, Z.W. (2015). Assessment of uncertainties in eddy covariance flux measurement based on intensive flux matrix of HiWATER-MUSOEXE. IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters, 12(2), 259-263. doi:10.1109/LGRS.2014.2334703. (View Details )
12.Liu, S.M., Xu, Z.W., Wang, W.Z., Bai, J., Jia, Z., Zhu, M., & Wang, J.M. (2011). A comparison of eddy-covariance and large aperture scintillometer measurements with respect to the energy balance closure problem. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 15(4), 1291-1306. (View Details |Download)
13.Liu, S.M., Xu, Z.W., Zhu, Z.L., Jia, Z.Z., & Zhu, M.J. (2013). Measurements of evapotranspiration from eddy-covariance systems and large aperture scintillometers in the Hai River Basin, China. Journal of Hydrology, 487, 24-38. (View Details |Download)
14.Gao, S.G., Zhu, Z.L., Liu, S.M., Jin, R., Yang, G.C., Tan, L. (2014). Estimating spatial distribution of soil moisture based on Bayesian maximum entropy method with auxiliary data from remote sensing. International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation, 32, 54-66. doi:10.1016/j.jag.2014.03.003. (View Details )
15.Xu, T.R., Liu, S.M., Xu, Z.W., Liang, S.L., Xu, L. (2015). A dual-pass data assimilation scheme for estimating surface fluxes with FY3A-VIRR land surface temperature. Sci. China Earth Sci., 58(2), 211-230, doi: 10.1007/s11430-014-4964-7. (View Details |Download)
16.Li, Y., Sun, R., Liu, S.M. (2014).Vegetation Physiological Parameters Setting in the Simple Biosphere Model 2 (SiB2) for alpine meadows in upper reaches of Heihe River. SCIENCE CHINA, doi:10.1007/s11430-014-4909-1. (View Details )
17.Ma, Y.F., Liu, S.M., Zhang, F., Zhou, J., Jia, Z.Z. (2015). Estimations of regional surface energy fluxes over heterogeneous oasis-desert surfaces in the middle reaches of the Heihe River during HiWATER-MUSOEXE. IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters, 12(3), 671-675. doi:10.1109/LGRS.2014.2356652. (View Details )
18.Bai, J., Jia, L., Liu, S., Xu, Z., Hu, G., Zhu, M., Song, L. (2015). Characterizing the Footprint of Eddy Covariance System and Large Aperture Scintillometer Measurements to Validate Satellite-Based Surface Fluxes. IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters, 12(5), 943-947. doi:10.1109/LGRS.2014.2368580. (View Details )
19.Zhang, L., Sun, R., Xu, Z.W., Qiao, C., Jiang, G.Q. (2015). Diurnal and Seasonal Variations in Carbon Dioxide Exchange in Ecosystems in the Zhangye Oasis Area, Northwest China. PLoS ONE, 10(3). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0120660. (View Details )
20.Xu, T., Liu, S., Xu, L., Chen, Y., Jia, Z., Xu, Z., Nielson, J. (2015). Temporal Upscaling and Reconstruction of Thermal Remotely Sensed Instantaneous Evapotranspiration. Remote Sensing. 7(3), 3400-3425. doi:10.3390/rs70303400. (View Details |Download)
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