The data set contains the observation data of the eddy covariance system of Sidaoqiao superstation which is located along the lower reaches of the Heihe Hydrometeorological observation network, and the data set covers data from January 1, 2017 to December 31, 2017. The station is located in Sidao Bridge, Ejina Banner, Inner Mongolia, and the underlying surface is Tamarix. The latitude and longitude of the observation station is 101.1374E, 42.0012N, and the altitude is 873 m. The height of the eddy covariance system is 8 meters, the sampling frequency is 10Hz, the ultrasonic orientation is positive north, and the distance between the ultrasonic wind speed and temperature monitor (CSAT3) and the CO2/H2O analyzer (Li7500) is 15cm.
The original observation data of the eddy covariance system is 10 Hz, and the released data is a 30-minute data processed by Eddypro software. The main steps of the processing include: outlier eliminating, delay time correction, coordinates rotation (secondary coordinates rotation), frequency response correction, ultrasonic virtual temperature correction and density (WPL) correction, etc. Meanwhile, the quality evaluation of each flux value was performed,mainly includes atmospheric stability (Δst) test and turbulence similarity (ITC) test. The 30-min flux value output of Eddypro software was also screened: (1) Data from the instrument error was eliminated; (2) Data obtained with one hour before and after precipitation was removed; (3) Data with a deletion rate greater than 10% of the 10 Hz raw data every 30 minutes was eliminated; (4) Observation data of weak turbulence at night (u* less than 0.1 m/s) was excluded. The average period of observation data is 30 minutes, 48 data per day, and the missing data is marked as -6999. The data was missing due to Li7500 calibration of the eddy system on April 7 and 8; the suspicious data caused by instrument drift and other reasons was marked by red fonts.
Published observation data include: date/time Date/Time, wind direction(°), horizontal wind speed(m/s), lateral wind speed standard deviation(m/s), ultrasonic virtual temperature (°C), water vapor density (g/m3), carbon dioxide concentration(mg/m3), friction velocity (m/s), length (m), sensible heat flux(W/m2), latent heat flux (W/m2), carbon dioxide flux (mg/(m2s)), sensible heat flux quality identification QA_Hs, latent heat flux quality identification QA_LE, carbon dioxide flux quality identification QA_Fc. The quality identification of sensible heat, latent heat, and carbon dioxide flux is divided into three levels (quality mark 0: (Δst <30, ITC<30); 1: (Δst <100, ITC<100); the rest is 2). The meaning of the data time, such as 0:30 represents an average data of 0:00-0:30; the data is stored in *.xls format.
For hydrometeorological network or station information, please refer to Li et al. (2013). For observation data processing, please refer to Liu et al. (2011).
1. Liu, S.M., Li, X., Xu, Z.W., Che, T., Xiao, Q., Ma, M.G., Liu, Q.H., Jin, R., Guo, J.W., Wang, L.X., Wang, W.Z., Qi, Y., Li, H.Y., Xu, T.R., Ran, Y.H., Hu, X.L., Shi, S.J., Zhu, Z.L., Tan, J.L., Zhang, Y., & Ren, Z.G. (2018). The Heihe Integrated Observatory Network: A Basin-Scale Land Surface Processes Observatory in China. Vadose Zone Journal, 17(1), 180072. doi:10.2136/vzj2018.04.0072.(View Details |Download )
2. Liu, S.M., Xu, Z.W., Wang, W.Z., Bai, J., Jia, Z., Zhu, M., & Wang, J.M. (2011). A comparison of eddy-covariance and large aperture scintillometer measurements with respect to the energy balance closure problem. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 15(4), 1291-1306.(View Details |Download )Cite as:
Liu, S., Li, X., Che, T., Xu, Z., Ren, Z., Tan, J. (2018). < b>HiWATER: Dataset of hydrometeorological observation network (eddy covariance system of Sidaoqiao superstation, 2017)</b>2018. doi: 10.3972/hiwater.11.2018.db. (Download the reference： RIS | Bibtex )
Using this data, the data citation is required to be referenced and the related literatures are suggested to be cited.
1.Zhou, J., Li, M.S., Liu, S.M., Jia, Z.Z., &Ma, Y.F. (2015). Validation and performance evaluations of methods for estimating land surface temperatures from ASTER data in the middle reach of the Heihe River Basin, Northwest China. Remote Sensing, 7, 7126-7156. (View Details )
2.Su, P.X., Yan, Q.D., Xie, T.T., Zhou,Z.J., & Gao, S. (2012). Associated growth of C3 and C4 desert plants helps the C3 species at the cost of the C4 species. Acta Physiologiae Plantarum, 34(6), 2057-2068. (View Details )
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4.Xu, T.R., Bateni, S.M., & Liang, S.L. (2015). Estimating turbulent heat fluxes with a weak-constraint data assimilation scheme: A case study (HiWATER-MUSOEXE). IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters, 12(1), 68-72. (View Details )
5.Song, L.S., Liu, S.M., Kustas, W.P., Zhou, J., Xu, Z.W., Xia, T., & Li, M.S. (2016). Application of remote sensing-based two-source energy balance model for mapping field surface fluxes with composite and component surface temperatures. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 230-231, 8-19. (View Details |Download)
6.Zhang, L., Sun, R., Xu, Z.W., Qiao, C., &Jiang, G.Q. (2015). Diurnal and Seasonal Variations in Carbon Dioxide Exchange in Ecosystems in the Zhangye Oasis Area, Northwest China. PLOS ONE, 10(6). (View Details )
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8.Xu, Z.W., Liu, S.M., Li, X., Shi, S.J., Wang, J.M., Zhu, Z.L., Xu, T.R., Wang, W.Z., &Ma, M.G. (2013). Intercomparison of surface energy flux measurement systems used during the HiWATER-MUSOEXE. Journal of Geophysical Research, 118, 13140-13157. (View Details |Download)
9.Song, L.S., Liu, S.M., William Kustas, P., Zhou, J., &Ma, Y.F. (2015). Using the Surface Temperature-Albedo Space to Separate Regional Soil and Vegetation Temperatures from ASTER Data. Remote Sensing, 7(5), 5828-5848. (View Details |Download)
10.Zhang, Q., Sun, R., Jiang, G.Q., Xu, Z.W., & Liu, S.M. (2016). Carbon and energy flux from a Phragmites australis wetland in Zhangye oasis-desert area, China. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 230-231, 45-57. (View Details )
11.Liu, S.M., Xu, Z.W., Song, L.S., Zhao, Q.Y., Ge, Y., Xu, T.R., Ma, Y.F., Zhu, Z.L., Jia, Z.Z., &Zhang, F. (2016). Upscaling evapotranspiration measurements from multi-site to the satellite pixel scale over heterogeneous land surfaces. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 230-231, 97-113. (View Details |Download)
12.Xu, Z.W., Ma, Y.F., Liu, S.M., Shi, S.J., &Wang, J.M. (2017). Assessment of the energy balance closure under advective conditions and its impact using remote sensing data. Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology, 56, 127-140. (View Details |Download)
13.Li Xin, Liu Shaomin, Ma Mingguo, Xiao Qing, Liu Qinhuo, Jin Rui, Che Tao. HiWATER: An Integrated Remote Sensing Experiment on Hydrological and Ecological Processes in the Heihe River Basin. Advances in Earth Science, 2012, 27(5): 481-498. (View Details |Download)
14.Wang, J.M., Zhuang, J.X., Wang, W.Z., Liu, S.M., &Xu, Z.W. (2015). Assessment of uncertainties in eddy covariance flux measurement based on intensive flux matrix of HiWATER-MUSOEXE. IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters, 12(2), 259-263. (View Details )
15.Song, L.S., Liu, S.M., Zhang, X., Zhou, J., & Li, M.S. (2015). Estimating and Validating Soil Evaporation and Crop Transpiration During the HiWATER-MUSOEXE. IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters, 12(2), 334-338. (View Details |Download)
16.Ge, Y., Liang, Y.Z., Wang, J.H., Zhao, Q.Y., &Liu, S.M. (2015). Upscaling sensible heat fluxes with area-to-area regression kriging. IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters, 12(3), 656-660. (View Details )
17.Hu, M.G., Wang, J.H., Ge, Y., Liu, M.X., Liu, S.M., Xu, Z.W., &Xu, T.R. (2015). Scaling Flux Tower Observations of Sensible Heat Flux Using Weighted Area-to-Area Regression Kriging. Atmosphere, 6(8), 1032-1044. (View Details |Download)
18.Gao, S.G., Zhu, Z.L., Liu, S.M., Jin, R., Yang, G.C., Tan, L. (2014). Estimating spatial distribution of soil moisture based on Bayesian maximum entropy method with auxiliary data from remote sensing. International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation, 32, 54-66. doi:10.1016/j.jag.2014.03.003. (View Details )
19.Ma, Y.F., Liu, S.M., Zhang, F., Zhou, J., & Jia, Z.Z. (2015). Estimations of regional surface energy fluxes over heterogeneous oasis-desert surfaces in the middle reaches of the Heihe River during HiWATER-MUSOEXE. IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters, 12(3), 671-675. doi:10.1109/LGRS.2014.2356652. (View Details )
20.Xu, T., Liu, S., Xu, L., Chen ,Y., Jia, Z., Xu, Z., &Nielson, J. (2015). Temporal Upscaling and Reconstruction of Thermal Remotely Sensed Instantaneous Evapotranspiration. Remote Sensing, 7(3), 3400-3425. (View Details |Download)
21.Liu, S.M., Xu, Z.W., Zhu, Z.L., Jia, Z.Z., &Zhu, M.J. (2013). Measurements of evapotranspiration from eddy-covariance systems and large aperture scintillometers in the Hai River Basin, China. Journal of Hydrology, 487, 24-38. (View Details )
22.Li X, Cheng GD, Liu SM, Xiao Q, Ma MG, Jin R, Che T, Liu QH, Wang WZ, Qi Y, Wen JG, Li HY, Zhu GF, Guo JW, Ran YH, Wang SG, Zhu ZL, Zhou J, Hu XL, Xu ZW. Heihe Watershed Allied Telemetry Experimental Research (HiWATER): Scientific objectives and experimental design. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 2013, 94(8): 1145-1160, 10.1175/BAMS-D-12-00154.1. (View Details )
23.Li, Y., Sun, R., &Liu, S.M. (2015). Vegetation Physiological Parameters Setting in the Simple Biosphere Model 2 (SiB2) for alpine meadows in upper reaches of Heihe River. Science China Earth Sciences, 58(5), 755-769. (View Details |Download)
24.Wang, Binbin, Ma, Yaoming, Chen, Xuelong, Ma, Weiqiang, Su, Zhongbo, Menenti, Massimo. Observation and simulation of lake-air heat and water transfer processes in a high-altitude shallow lake on the Tibetan Plateau. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 2015, 120(24):2015JD023863. doi:10.1002/2015JD023863 (View Details )
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10.HiWATER: Dataset of flux observation matrix (eddy covariance system of Zhangye wetland Station) of the MUlti-Scale Observation EXperiment on Evapotranspiration over heterogeneous land surfaces 2012 (MUSOEXE-12)
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